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This would be significant in the coming battle as the position astern of the flagship would be the focus of British attention, and should have been occupied by a powerful ship like the Neptune. He was promoted to Rear-Admiral on 9 November 1805 and each of the captains involved in the action was presented with a gold medal. Use the form below. She put into Rosia Bay, Gibraltar and after emergency repairs were carried out, returned to Britain. Neptune battled briefly with the 64-gun HMS Polyphemus, and as the British began to overwhelm the Franco-Spanish fleet, she prepared to run for Cadiz, giving supporting fire for the Principe de Asturias as the Spanish ship withdrew, before joining the retreat to Cadiz. The French ships were then seized by the Spanish forcesand put into service against France. From them he discovered that Nelson was in hot pursuit, and had arrived at Barbados. The details recorded for each individual vary from book to book. Victory suffered terribly and Nelson was mortally wounded. Four of the French ships that had escaped Trafalgar were taken at the Battle of Cape Ortegal on November 4. The surviving ships remained bottled up in Cádiz until 1808, when Napoleon invaded Spain. (After Calder joined up with Nelsons fleet he was allowed to sail back to England on the Prince of Wales in an attempt to clear his name at a court martial. [15] Neptune had to be towed back into Cadiz. Admiral Nelson's losses were zero ships and approximately 1,700 killed or wounded. [15] Belleisle had become isolated and took the fire of several French ships until British ships were able to come to her rescue. [14] Neptune saw little action in the confused fighting, and consequently escaped with little damage. The Battle of Trafalgar took place on the 21st October 1805 off the coast of Spain. [1] While in Cadiz Villeneuve had described Neptune as being 'In every respect one of the finest and most seaworthy ships of the Fleet. The combined French-Spanish fleet left Cadiz Harbour in a loose line and turned to the south along the coast of Andalusia, headed for Naples through the Straits of Gibraltar. During the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) she captured the 74-gun French ship Algésiras. The Royal Navy, under the command of Vice-Admiral the Lord Nelson (who died in the action) with 27 ships of the line defeated a combined Franco-Spanish fleet of 33 ships under the command of Vice-Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve. Pluton, Algesiras and Argonaute and the 40-gun frigate Cornélie, out of the harbour, but on 9 July the squadron was attacked by Spanish forces from the land and sea. They were taking advantage of the north-westerly wind which was blowing on the starboard (right) rear quarter, nearly amidships, pushing them along at a slow rate and causing a swell(waves) perpendicular to the wind direction. You don’t need to complete every field to find a record. She sailed again with the fleet, under Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, in early 1805, and this time succeeded in breaking out of the Mediterranean, and sailing to the West Indies, where the fleet was joined by Spanish ships. maybe someone has a … It occurred on October 21, 1805, at Cape Trafalgar on the Atlantic coast of Spain. Neptune was built at Toulon to a design by Jacques-Noël Sané, with her keel laid down in 1801. When the British vice admiral Horatio Nelson broke through the French and Spanish line of battle off Cape Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, he unleashed a full broadside from the four gun decks of HMS Victory through the stern window of the French flagship Bucentaure. Neptune saw little action, and was relatively unscathed. The two patrolling frigates, HMS Seahorse and HMS Active, had rushed to report the news to Nelson, anchored at La Maddalena, and in so doing, left the French unobserved. Tonnant underwent a refit at Portsmouth between January and June 1806. [16], As the battle started Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory broke the line ahead of Neptune, passing by and raking Bucentaure. [15] Neptune put to sea in company with two French ships, the 80-gun Indomptable and the 74-gun Pluton, and two Spanish ships, the 100-gun Rayo and the 74-gun San Francisco de Asis. In William Kinsolving's 1996 novel Mister Christian, Fletcher Christian returns from the South Seas and serves on the Victory in the Battle of Trafalgar. The 3 ship class (the third was HMS Superb) succeeded the one off prototype 'all big gun' HMS Dreadnought. She briefly engaged HMS Royal Sovereign at long range, and then wore back to support Villeneuve. These are muster rolls of ships which were led by Captain (later Vice-Admiral) Richard Strachan, and sent to capture French ships in the Bay of Biscay on November 1805. Under the command of Captain l'Hôpitalier-Villemadrin she was recaptured at the Battle of Trafalgar and was one of the few captured ships to survive the storm. [11] The small garrison surrendered on 2 June, by which time the frigate Didon had arrived with orders. The fleet was to transport 6,500 troops to attack British possessions in the Caribbean, but was unable to leave Toulon owing to the presence of a British fleet under Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, that was blockading the port. [13] The combined fleet was spotted on 22 July as it sailed westwards towards Ferrol, and Calder manoeuvred to intercept it. [13] Villeneuve formed up the line of battle, with Neptune being eleventh from the front, positioned astern of the Berwick and ahead of the Bucentaure. [1] After resupplying briefly at Cadiz, the fleet sailed to the West Indies, arriving at Fort de France, Martinique on 14 May, where they were joined over the next two days by six Spanish ships of the line and a frigate under Frederico Gravina. At Trafalgar, in 1805, 20 of the 27 British ships of the line were 3rd rates, and 16 of those had 74 guns. [16] Meanwhile, the ship that should have been astern of Neptune, the Spanish 64-gun San Leandro, was following San Justo to leeward, leaving a considerable gap behind the flagship that the British could exploit. Rif Winfield and Stephen S. Roberts (2015). For quick pointersTuesday to Saturday Details of the sea battle, in which British ships chased and captured the French vessels, appear in the helmsman's log. We do not provide copies of online records – please download to view, Visit us in Kew to see original documents or view online records for free, Consider paying for [1] She was also similar to another Trafalgar combatant, the 80-gun HMS Tonnant, which had previously been a French warship. [2], The remains of the French fleet were bottled up in Cadiz under Rear-Admiral Rosily, trapped there by the British blockade. However, within minutes giant British battleships were arriving one after the other and the enemy was terribly outgunned and their crews slaughtered. Villeneuve ordered his fleet to form a single line heading north, and Nelson ordered his fleet to form two squadrons and attack Villeneuve’s line from the west, at right angles. [15], Leaving Temeraire, and declining combat with the newly arrived HMS Leviathan, Maistral turned eastward, and at 2.30 pm came alongside the starboard bow of the 74-gun HMS Belleisle. The column had a p… She took part in the battles of the French Revolutionary Wars in the Brest squadron, served in the Caribbean in 1803, and duelled with HMS Victory during the Battle of Trafalgar, killing Vice … [4][6] Nelson spent nearly six weeks sailing back and forth across the Mediterranean through heavy seas while the French remained in port, before news finally reached him of Villeneuve's location. Also with the ships of the line were the smaller French ships that had been present at the battle but had not taken part, the frigates Cornélie , Thémis , Hortense , Rhin and Hermione , and the brigs Furet and Argus . HMS Donegal came up, and being unable to resist, Rayo surrendered to her, but was driven on shore on 26 October and wrecked. Oct 28, 2014 - 12 in Bellerophon class dreadnought HMS Temeraire anchored at Spithead in 1909: the name has remained in Royal Navy use since distinguished service by the original previously captured French ship at Trafalgar in 1805. Maistral prepared Neptune for sea, and the fleet sailed from Cadiz on 19 October. In previous times, fleets had usually engaged in a mixed mêlée of chaotic one-on-one battles. A quick summary of the post Trafalgar building programme Antwerp: 37 Toulon :15 Rochefort = 11 Brest: 9 Lorient: 10 Cherbourg: 5 Venice: 11 Genoa : 6 Rotterdam + Amsterdam = 5 (not including ships for the Neapolitan navy, nor ships still in those harbours at the time of Trafalgar. Aftermath . Villeneuve came out of Cadiz in late 1805, and was engaged by Nelson in the decisive Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October. Consult the table below to convert the calendar dates. Pickle was at the Battle of Trafalgar, and though she was too small to take part in the fighting, Pickle was the first ship to bring the news of Nelson's victory to Great Britain. [1], She joined the fleet in entering Vigo Bay on 28 July, and went into Ferrol on 2 August. The records can include French Revolutionary Calendar dates. [15] Maistral then ordered Neptune's jib run up, to move her out of Victory's range. Neptune was a Bucentaure-class 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. The muster rolls include details of the sailors, soldiers and passengers of each vessel. After achieving little in the Caribbean, the fleet sailed back to Europe, where they were engaged by a British fleet in the Battle of Cape Finisterre. Discovery is a catalogue of archival records across the UK and beyond, from which you can search 32 million records. One reason for the development of the line of battle system was to facilitate control of the fleet: if all the ships were in line, signalling in battle became possible. The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battleand then engaging broadside in parallel lines. [1], Neptune joined the rest of the Toulon fleet preparing to sail for the West Indies on 21 October 1804 under the command of Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve. During the battle Neptune fired on Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory, and duelled with several British ships including HMS Royal Sovereign, HMS Temeraire and HMS Belleisle. One of Sané's 80-gun Bucentaure-class, her lines were virtually identical to those of her contemporaries Bucentaure, Indomptable and Formidable, all of which fought at Trafalgar. When Rosily arrived in Cádiz, he found only five French ships, rather than the 18 he was expecting. Of the 33 ships of Villeneuve's fleet that had departed Cadiz, only 11 returned. v3.0, offences committed and punishments inflicted, unusual events, such as attendance at Napoleon’s coronation, lists of army units aboard (for example the 67th Infantry aboard Scipion). Nelson's rout of the Franco-Spanish fleet, whose losses included 18 ships, 6,000 killed or wounded, and over 20,000 taken prisoner, so stung Napoleon that he never initiated another naval campaign. Many of the injured crew were brought ashore at Gibraltar and treat… [15] With the Spanish entry to the war against France on 4 July 1808, Rosily realised that his fleet was in range of now hostile shore batteries. [1] After spending several months there, watched by the blockading British fleet under Nelson, Villeneuve decided to put to sea in mid-October. [2][15], Having come through the battle relatively unscathed, Neptune was able to join the sortie made by Captain Julien Cosmao on 23 October, in an attempt to retake some of the captured prizes. [1] Neptune formed part of Villeneuve's division, consisting of the flagship, the 80-gun Bucentaure, and the 74-gun ships Pluton, Mont-Blanc, Berwick and Atlas. It didn't try to swell in size after Trafalgar and even began to reduce in size after 1812. Pickle was wrecked in 1808, but without loss of life. HMS Indefatigable, after her conversion to a 44 gun frigate, fighting with the French frigate Virginie. Accompanying the fleet were six frigates and two brigs. It struck the ships from the side, causing them to roll and ruining their stability as gun platforms. [16] Maistral hailed San Justo, The San Justo not being in her station and edging down to place herself on my windward beam hampered me; I at once hailed her to enquire if she knew her station; I told her that mine was to be next astern to the Bucentaure; she replied that she was about to place herself astern of me, which she did not do, and continued to the wind and to fore-reach on me, which made me fall off a little to leeward and to draw away from the flagship, of whom I had been within hail in the first place. [15] By now unmanageable, Temeraire came under fire from the San Justo, lying just astern of Neptune. Redoutable's captain, Jean Jacques Étienne Lucas, saw the threat, and brought his ship forward in an attempt to close the gap. Trapped in the port, the French handed their ships over to the Spanish, who renamed Neptune Neptuno, replacing a Spanish ship lost at Trafalgar. There she remained, under a close British blockade, until the Spanish declared war on the French. 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